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History of the Triple Existence


lists of tables and illustrations



table 1.1 Significant events after the Big Bang (13.798 billion years ago) 6
table 1.2 Periodic table of elements (in appendix) 440
table 1.3 Chemical elements from hydrogen to iron (in appendix) 454

table 2.1 Geological periods: eons and eras 49
table 2.2 Earth’s largest water and land surfaces by area 64

table 3.1 Cladogram of life 74
table 3.2 Phanerozoic eras and periods 76
table 3.3 Cenozoic periods and epochs 95

table 4.1 Mammal lineages leading to Homo sapiens 104
table 4.2 When other primates branched off from Homo sapiens 105
table 4.3 Human population by year 130
table 4.4 Percentages of world population by region and date 131

table 5.1 A chronology of prehistoric cultures 142
table 5.2 Prehistoric cultures in Europe 143
table 5.3 Branches of the world’s languages 166
table 5.4 Languages spoken by the most people 170

table 6.1 Dynasties of ancient Egypt 182
table 6.3 Dynasties of the Roman empire 193
table 6.4 Chinese dynasties 207

table 7.1 Philosophers, prophets, and theologians 228
table 7.2 The Lord’s prayer. (in appendix) 442
table 7.3 The Nicene creed (in appendix) 443

table 8.1 Some Renaissance personalities 272
table 8.2 World energy production by type of energy 294
table 8.3 Employment by industry in the United States, 1800-2010table 9.1 Top ten films by box-office receipts 338

table 9.1 Top ten films by box-office receipts 338
table 9.2 Radios in use in the United States, 1922 to 1975 343
table 9.3 Television sets in use in the United States, 1947 to 1975 348

table 10.1 Advances in computer switching speed, 1939 to 1990 367

appendix 1 Big History’s time disparity 440
appendix 2 Scheme of the five epochs of civilization. 442




Chapter 1
electromagnetic spectrum 13
Hertzsprung-Russell diagram 15
blue nebula in space 24
1890s telescope Red House Observatory, Geneva New York 26
Whirlpool galaxy Big Dipper constellation 28
dish antenna 30

Chapter 2
the sun 35
Brooks comet #2 observed in 1886 39
the earth 40
Jupiter and Saturn 41
the moon photographed from Lick observatory, California 43
earth’s crust 47
supercontinent Pangaea existed on earth 200-300 million years ago 54
scene in Monument Valley (Utah) 59

Chapter 3
DNA molecule the double-helix structure 70
prokaryotic cell from Armand Delsemme, Our Cosmic Origins, Cambridge University
Press, 1998 70
eukaryotic cell from Armand Delsemme, Our Cosmic Origins 71
early Paleozoic scene 79
swamp forest of the carboniferous age 82
pelycosaur reptile of Permian age 84
brontosaurus reptile of Jurassic period 88
archaeopteryx earliest bird, late Jurassic period 89
crustacean subphylum of Arthropod 92
tyrannosaurus rex reptile of Cretaceous period 93
entelodont (giant pig) Oligocene mammal 97
hairy mammoth early Pleistocene mammal 99

Chapter 4
scheme of human evolution 102
chimpanzee 106
Australopithecus Africanus 110
Cro-Magnon man ca. 41,000 B.C. 118

Chapter 5
Palaeolithic chopping tool 136
Mousterian Age artifacts stone points 137
flint arrowheads 138
primitive throwing stick with reindeer horn 139
painting from cave at Altamira, Spain from Paleolithic period 142
Sioux Indians hunting mythical moose 144
Stonehenge megalith near Salisbury, England from third millennium B.C. 146
Neolithic Swiss lake dwelling drawing in Déchelett’s Manuel de Archéologie 148
pottery from lake dwelling 149
Egyptian ploughing and sowing from a papyrus drawing 153
Pueblo women grinding corn 154
altar to Yan a religion of Burma 156
little-dipper constellation includes Polaris, the North Star 157

Chapter 6
ancient Egyptian brick-making from Thebes 176
Sumerian warriors in phalanx from Sumerian stone carving 180
Assyrian king and chief minister 181
pharaoh Khafra (Chephren) reigned 2558-2532 B.C. 182
map of the fertile crescent 185
Assyrian winged bull repellant of evil, guardian of the realm 186
Alexander the Great 356-323 B.C. 187
Greek emperor Seleucus I (Nicator) 365-281 B.C. from Tetradrachm coin 188
Roman scene beneath statute of Romulus and Remus being suckled by a wolf 190
Julius Caesar 100-44 B.C. Vatican Museum 191
Augustus Caesar (Octavian) 63 B.C.-14 A.D. Vatican Museum 192
Roman aqueduct near Nîmes, France built by emperor Antoninus Pius 192
Roman empire during Trajan’s reign (a map) 194
Hagia Sophia church in Constantinople later became a mosque 195
Persian emperor Ardeshir 180-242 A.D. founder of Sasanian empire 200
Varanhran receiving submission of the Segestani (Croatians) Persian emperor
Bahram II, reigned 274-293 A.D. 201
mosque of Aurangzeb at Benares, India Mogul emperor 1618-1707 205
Tu Fu takes family on a journey T’ang dynasty poet, lived 712-770 A.D. 210
Temple of Heaven in Beijing 212
Shan (Burmese) girl 213
Mayan idol at Copán in Honduras 216
View of Machu Picchu (Peru) 217

Chapter 7
Egyptian drawing on papyrus 220
the judgment of the dead weighing of deceased’s heart in the scales of truth 221
alphabetic writing, several languages 224
pharaoh Ikhnaton (also Akhenaton or Amenhotep IV) reigned 1375-1358 B.C. 232
Jesus on the cross 6 B.C.- 29 A.D. 235
face of Jesus Sinai Jesus 238
symbols of spiritual and temporal power St. Peter giving Pope Leo III the stola
and Charlemagne the banner of Rome, 9th century mosaic in the Vatican 242
investiture of a bishop a king giving the crosier to bishop, 10th century 243
Cologne cathedral in Germany constructed 11th through 19th centuries 245
Byzantine madonna and child 246
Kazan cathedral, Red Square, Moscow 247
coin of Persian emperor Shahpuhr 248
camel caravan 251
Ka’bah shrine in Mecca 252
the muezzin from painting by Jean Leon Gerome 254
Santiago the Moorslayer St. James, legendary son of Christ’s disciple, seen in 9th
century battle in Spain 256
Buddha 563-483 B.C. 260
Brahma Hindu god of creation 262
Hariti 6th Century A.D. Buddhist protector of children, Chinese Turkestan 264
Tibetan prayer wheel device for automatic praying 264
Buddha hall Ching-t’ung Lu-ssu 266
an early Christian saint 267

Chapter 8
Petrarch (Francesco Petrarca) 1304-1374 from portrait by S. Tofanelli 271
globe of Martin Behaim (1492) German cartographer 1459-1507 271
printing press 274
Martin Luther 1483-1546 279
St. Ignatius Loyola 1491-1556 after a painting by Rubens 280
15th Century university from Geiger’s Renaissance und Humanismus 282
Christ the Redeemer of the Andes erected in 1904 between Chile and Argentina 283
Christopher Columbus 1451-1506 after the Capriolo portrait 283
Queen Elizabeth I of England 1533-1603 the Ermine portrait 285
16th Century sea battle between Spanish and English vessels 286
King Louis XIV of France 1638-1715 the “Sun King” 288
George Washington 1732-1799 first President of the United States 290
Isaac Newton 1642-1727 292
Galileo Galilei 1564-1642 293
Richard Trevithick’s locomotive first operated in 1804 293
on the shop floor 295
Thomas Edison 1847-1931 American inventor 297
Model T Ford automobile built between 1908 and 1927 298
at the stock exchange 299
May Day in Tiananmen Square 2000 photograph, picture of Sun Yat-sen 300
Matthew Arnold 1822-1888 British educator 303
Czar Peter the Great of Russia 1672-1725 painting by Karol de Moor 304
Balliol college, Oxford 305
William Shakespeare 1564-1616 English playwright and poet 306
a news reporter drawing by W.D. Smedley 309
in line at the tool room 310
“nude descending a staircase” by Marcel Duchamp exhibited in 1913 “Armory
Show” in New York City 315
Kaiser Wilhelm of Germany 1859-1941 315

Chapter 9
1926 clothing style Vogue magazine in February 1, 1926 From Only Yesterday by
Frederick Lewis Allen 318
Colosseum in Rome built in 80 A.D., from a photograph 318
Crystal Palace in London built for Great Exhibition of 1851 320
Kentucky Derby winner late 19th century 321
baseball players (batter and catcher) 324
basketball players 325
Greek Olympic wrestlers 326
Edison’s phonograph player 331
Elvis Presley singer 1935-1977 332
Eadweard Muybridge horse photography “The Horse in Motion”, 1878 334
celluloid film strip 334
Fred Ott’s Sneeze taken in 1894 by Edison movie studio 335
poster for The Glenn Miller Story 1954 American film 339
Marilyn Monroe film star 1926-1962 340
radio antenna 342
watching television in early 1950s 347
Lucille Ball television comedienne starring in the 1950s show “I Love Lucy” 350
Minnesota Twins victory celebration after World Series victory in 1987 353
“down on my luck” - a casino cashout voucher 354
Shooting Star casino sign Ojibway-owned casino in Mahnomen, Minnesota 355
pass to Disneyland for author’s father in 1957 356

Chapter 10
Charles Babbage’s “Analytical Engine” computer first described in 1837 362
IBM-type computer punch card 80-column card with marked columns 365
printed circuit board 370
computer with monitor and keyboard 372
data center and server room 375
on-line shopping 387
some logos of popular websites 389
Apple iPAD touchscreen 393
a computer hard drive 394
face with data 397
office worker at computer monitor 399

Chapter 11
diagram of a human neuron 410
neural network 12
parts of the brain 413
brain waves 415
robotic arm 418
the grim reaper “Death on a pale horse” The Doré Bible Gallery by Gustave Doré 428
view of earth from the moon from a photograph 430

Periodic table to elements. See page 454
development of cuneiform writing (ideographic). page 453
Hebrew script (alphabetic) 453
Indian script (alphabetic) 453
Chinese script (ideographic) 453
chemical elements - hydrogen to iron 454
the Nicene creed 455
diagram of emerging institutions in civilized society 456



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